Guest Post: Cuttlefish by Grant Stirton

By , April 10, 2014 12:51 pm

Cuttlefish photo by Grant Stirton

The Cuttlefish

There’s one cryptic reef dweller, whose superior intelligence, curiosity and charisma has always captured my heart. With over 120 species worldwide, the cuttlefish is both an adaptable and resourceful predator. They belong to the taxonomic class of Cephalopods and their morphology is closely related to octopus and squid. I’ve been fortunate enough to encounter them many times over the years as they are common throughout the tropical coral reefs of South East Asia.

Why Are They So Interesting?

Behind their curious looks lies a relatively large and well developed brain. Scientific analysis has shown that their cognitive abilities can approach that of a two-year human child, making them the most intelligent of all invertebrates. In my experience, many seem to revel in an encounter with divers, so long as they are approached slowly and in a non-threatening manner. I’ve even put out my hand and had a particularly interested individual swim over and sit down for a short visit. Often they will look directly at you, examining and investigating, until they satisfy their natural inquisitiveness.

One of their most unique adaptions relates to their eyes and how they see. Shaped like the letter W, each eye has two pupils, allowing them to see forward and backwards at the same time. And although they are colour blind, they can detect the polarization of light, which significantly enhances their perception of contrast and ability to spot well-camouflaged prey.

Using a combination of specialized skin cells and pigment, they can also instantaneous change colour to match their surroundings, as a means of camouflage, to communicate or to ward off predators. In one study, biologists were able to train them to produce shapes on their backs as a form of communication when they desired food. Normally, if they feel threatened or are being aggressive, they will change colour to a dark reddish or brown. As you can see from the picture, our little friend was quite calm and happy, even though I was less than twelve inches away with a big camera. He was intent on having a very good look at his reflection in my lens and completely ignored me.

Although they are a mainly a predator of crabs and small fish, they are also prey for larger marine animals including fish, sharks and eels. As a means to defend themselves and escape an attack, they possess, as do octopus and squid, the ability to shoot out a trail of ink that creates a pseudo smoke-screen. Interestingly for photographers, many old sepia-toned prints were made using their ink. Fortunately today, this traditional ink has been replaced with less environmentally destructive synthetic varieties.

All this intelligence, adaption and cleverness requires a solid engine. As a result, the cuttlefish has three hearts in order to ensure orderly circulation. This is a necessity as they do not have the iron containing protein hemoglobin in their blood that vertebrates do, but rather hemocyanin, which is a copper containing protein that is less efficient in the transport of oxygen.

The cuttlefish also uses a form of jet propulsion to move through the water column, allowing them to swim both forwards and backwards effortlessly. An internal structure called the cuttlebone, which is porous and made of aragonite, allows them maintain perfect neutral buoyancy at depth via pumping gas into the structure. Even the United States military has borrowed from this concept and adapted a similar design for maintaining the buoyancy of their nuclear submarines.

If you do come across one of these amazing creatures while diving, here are a few suggestions that will help ensure a memorable, safe and unique photographic opportunity:

1. Always approach them slowly and calmly. A very slow approach from below or at eye level is best, as this is much less threatening than a big, loud diver dropping right in on top of them.

2. I always make sure to leave them an easy way to escape, so that they don’t feel cornered and decide to retreat. This also ensures I don’t end up being sprayed in the face with foul tasting ink.

3. Photographically, they make great subjects, however any erratic movement is likely to scare them. It’s best to back away slightly and ensure your camera settings, composition and frame before slowly getting into the right position for a good shot. It’s much better to get one good shot than a series of mediocre ones. I haven’t found flash to be much of an issue in frightening them, however, I do try to keep it on the lowest power setting possible given the light and conditions. Blinding an animal with a powerful flash is not only poor practice, but also lessens your chances for a follow up shot.

The accompanying photo was taken on the reef slope next to the USS Liberty Wreck located in Bali, Indonesia. We came across this cuttlefish at the end of our dive as we made our way up the shallow reef slope back to shore. This individual was so curious that we ended up spending almost a full ten minutes with each other. This allowed me the chance to get very close with my macro lens and take a memorable picture.

Our oceans are full amazing creatures and for many we are only beginning to understand their lifestyles and importance in the overall eco-system. The cuttlefish is a perfect example of an animal full of personality, but that has also provided us with a wealth of knowledge about the delicate balance of our marine environments.
[100mm macro lens, 1/100 sec @ f/4.0, ISO 200]

Grant Stirton

Grant Stirton

Grant Stirton is a passionate Canadian photographer, writer and avid adventurer who specializes in marine environments, culture and travel. He can be reached at, twitter @grantstirton, Facebook .

One Drop of Water on World Water Day

By , March 21, 2014 6:11 pm
world water day

One Drop of Water by David Newman

Hi, I am one drop of water. I am here today, World Water Day (March 22), to talk about the drought happening in California. California is in the midst of its worst drought in over 100 years, and the warmest and driest winter in recorded history. California is also in a 3 year dry spell.

As for me, I’m happily ensconced in a pack of snow. The snowpack in California is only 26% of normal. Soon enough though, the snow around me will melt. I will flow down a picturesque river into a reservoir. Then I’ll irrigate some parched land or some parched throats. I shudder to think about all the dried out land-that is what I have nightmares about!

Part of this drought is out of the human’s control. According to this NASA website The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is a “slowly oscillating pattern of sea surface temperatures in the Pacific Ocean. At the moment PDO is in a negative phase, a condition historically linked to extreme high pressure ridges that block West Coast storms, and give the Midwest and East Coast punishing winters.” I’m quite glad I’m not there, as I probably would get dizzy!

What does this mean for California? It’s time to start conserving water! My buddies and I are becoming scarce. Otherwise farmers in California may not plant over half a million acres, resulting in the loss of billions of dollars in revenue. Some small communities may run out of drinking water.

How you can help?

1. Take shorter showers, even if just by 1 minute!
2. Check faucets, pipes and toilets for leaks.
3. Install low flow showerheads (a good one feels the same as a water guzzling one) and faucet aerators
4. Start dishwasher or washing machine with only full loads
5. Water your yard early in the day (to cut down on evaporation) and avoid watering on windy days

Thank you! You can make a difference in your daily life, visit this website for more water saving tips

Book Review “The Death and Life of Monterey Bay” by Stephen Palumbi & Carolyn Sotka

By , March 17, 2014 11:07 am
by Stephen Palumbi

The Death and Life of Monterey Bay

I just came across this in my notebook, written 3 years ago! The review is a relevant today as it was years ago, though. Here’s my book review:

“The Death and Life of Monterey Bay: A Story of Revival” was a perfect book for me, as a scientist, and as a “history-was-one-of –my-worst-subjects-at-school” kind of person. I worked at the Monterey Bay Aquarium for 2 years, and I have lived in both Monterey and Pacific Grove, California. I always meant to read John Steinbeck’s “Cannery Row,” but never got around to it.

I had known that marine animals were historically exploited in Monterey Bay. Now I know the exact order: sea otters for their luxurious fur, whales for their oil, abalone for their tasty foot, sea urchins because there was nothing else left, and finally the sardines.

I had heard about China Point from my Asian American History class, but I hadn’t known the details of how the Chinese prospered from selling abalone and then squid, only to be forced out because of racism.

I loved being introduced to the former mayor of Pacific Grove, Julia Platt. I would have loved to have met her. She was a marine biologist before women were “allowed” into science at universities. She was outspoken about the affairs of Pacific Grove, and she had the foresight to create the equivalent of a Marine Protected Area off the shores of Pacific Grove.

It was interesting to finally “meet” Ed Ricketts, whom I only knew wrote the book “Between Pacific Tides,” a textbook that was required in my first Marine Biology class. He was quite a character along with his now famous friends, Joseph Campbell and John Steinbeck.

I always love scientists, like Ed Ricketts, who don’t follow the rules of academia. For instance, Jane Goodall started studying chimpanzees without a formal university degree (she later got one). She also named and empathized with her subjects, something scientists are not supposed to do.

Ed Ricketts wasn’t into quantitative data, as he was interested in seeing the big picture. He also saw how the ecology of tide pools fits in with the philosophy of life.

Next time I’m in Pacific Grove, I feel like I should pay a visit to Julia Platt’s old house at 557 Ocean View Boulevard, which is now a bed and breakfast inn, and see her plaque at Lover’s Point.

In short, I highly recommend “The Death and Life of Monterey Bay: a Story of Revival” to natural history lovers, and especially those who have fallen in love with the charm and natural beauty of the Monterey Bay area.

Sex in the Sea: Uncovering the Mating Behavior of the Giant Sea Bass

By , February 28, 2014 12:52 pm
Sea Bass

The Giant Sea Bass: photo by Orange County Register

Brian Clark is a graduate student at California State University Northridge. He is currently crowdfunding his research project “Sex in the Sea: Uncovering the Mating Behavior of the Giant Sea Bass” Here is more from Brian (aka JR) Clark:

The GIANT SEA BASS, Stereolepis gigas, is the big and beautiful goliath of the eastern Pacific. This is a fish that is not only important to its ecosystem, but has been seen as a trophy to fisherman up and down the California coast. Over the years they have been fished to almost extinction and no one was ever able to do scientific research on them. Recently, they have started being spotted in southern California so I thought it would be the perfect time to finally learn a little something about GIANTS. I’m part of Dr. Larry Allen’s Ichthyology lab at California State University, Northridge (CSUN) but we have picked up the nickname as the “Giant Sea Bass Lab.” We are trying to get a well-rounded view on the basic biology and increase the conservation efforts for this endangered fish.

I am looking into the reproductive behavior of this fish and I believe that this study is critical to their preservation. This study will be the first to look at the behavioral aspects and strategies for the fishes within their family, Polyprionidae. Giant sea bass are thought to breed in shallow waters where other species in their family are thought to spawn at extreme depths, making observations not feasible. If you are interested, you can learn more and donate to research here:

JR Clark

Brian Clark

A little about myself, I grew up living close to the beach and couldn’t get enough of it. I was always in the water but never really knew what was going on beneath the surface. In school we were only taught about the “beautiful” tropical fishes and never really learned about the beauty of the temperate water fishes, but it was something I was always curious about. So I decided to dedicate my time to studying the temperate waters of California. I started my career as a Marine Biologist at San Francisco State University. While I was there I worked in an evolutionary development lab that focused on fish where I found out that genetic work is not the life for me. I was then given the opportunity to do some research out on Catalina Island and studied dominance behavior of leopard sharks, Triakis semifasciata. It was an awesome project and during the study I realized that I wanted to do observational research on marine organisms, mainly fishes and sharks. Currently, I am a graduate student at CSUN and am extremely excited to be studying Giant sea bass behavior.

As a grad student I don’t have much free time, so when I can, I like to spend the afternoon playing disc golf or just bumming around at the beach. I also recently moved to the Valley and I have made it a mission of mine to try every taqueria in the area (there’s about 10 within a mile of my house). Tacos here are cheap and really really good, so it’s been a fun adventure that my friends and I can partake in!

The Fastest, Heaviest, Largest, Longest, & Oldest Ocean Animals

By , February 24, 2014 8:08 am

The Oarfish: the longest fish in the ocean

Now that the Winter Olympics are over, I thought I’d list some record-breaking ocean animals:

1. The fastest fish in the ocean is a sailfish clocked at 68.18 mph (miles per hour)or 109.73 kph (kilometers per hour).

2. The fastest shark is a mako shark measured at 60 mph (96.56 kph).

3. The heaviest bony fish is a Mola mola (ocean sunfish) that was 10 feet long and weighed 4,928 pounds.

4. The largest fish is a whale shark that was 41.5 feet long (12.6 meters) and weighed 66,000 pounds (21.5 metric tons).

5. The largest, heaviest, and longest ocean animal is a blue whale female measured at 109 feet 3.5 inches(33.27 meters) and 190 tons.

6. The longest fish is an oarfish that was 56 feet long (17 meters)

7. The longest colony (of more than one animal) of animals is a siphonophore (similar to a jellyfish) named Praya dubia that is 100-160 feet long (30-50 meters)

8. The oldest ocean animal was an ocean quahog clam named Ming who was 507 years old.

9. The oldest mammal is a bowhead whale estimated to be at least 211 years old.

10. The deepest swimming air-breathing animal is a sperm whale, which can dive to depths of 9800 feet (3 kilometers)

Some facts based on Biggest, Smallest, Fastest, and Deepest marine animals

California’s Salmon Run

By , February 10, 2014 8:08 am
salmon upstream

Salmon jumping upstream picture: Wikimedia Commons

Yee haw! It’s the time of the year when rain means it’s time to spawn. Us salmon were worried as California is in the midst of its driest year on record. But rainfall occurred in the nick of time.

You see, each year the adult salmon at sea (in this case the Pacific Ocean) return up the rivers to the place of their birth. There we spawn (that is lay eggs) on gravel beds, and then we die. The young salmon that hatch then grow up in those rivers before swimming out to the ocean to mature. There they grow up and gain weight. Those salmon then return to their place of birth and spawn, and the whole salmon life cycle is complete.

We are called andromous, which means “running upward,” i.e. our salmon run is upstream.

The really cool thing is that human scientists have figured out that we have a “magnetic map” in our head that helps us navigate. They think we “sense changes in the intensity and angle of the Earth’s magnetic field to establish our position in the ocean.”

Not only that, they think that we are born with this magnetic map and do not learn it during our childhood. I agree with that assumption.

Scientists also think that creatures such as sea turtles, sharks, and whales may navigate in the same way as us salmon.

Did you know that there are 5 species of salmon found off the Pacific coast? They are Chinook, Chum, Coho, Pink and Sockeye salmon.

Parts of this post based on this article “Pacific Salmon Migrate with a ‘Magnetic Map’”

Florida Manatees in 2013: Deadliest Year on Record

By , January 14, 2014 8:08 am
Florida manatees

Manatee calf nursing on its mother

Hi, my name is Flo and I’m a manatee. It’s nice that manatees are now respected by humans. Other than (hopefully) accidental boat strikes, humans are no longer trying to kill Florida’s manatees like when we were hunted pre-twentieth century.

I think it is a term of endearment that we are also called sea cows. We eat only underwater plants just like cows eat grass on land.

Manatees only frequent rivers and lagoons where the year round temperature is 72 degrees F (22 degrees C). I especially like the warm water outfalls of power plants! When those warm areas are under threat, so are we. Unfortunately last year (2013) nearly 17 percent of the Florida manatee population died. I feel lucky to be alive!

This record number of deaths was due for many reasons, including red tides, an unknown disease, and boat strikes.

Red tides occur when there is a potentially fatal algae outbreak. This outbreak starts out at the bottom of the food chain. This dinoflagellate slowly bioaccumulates up the food chain until large animals such as myself eat those infected organisms and possibly get sick or die.

Many manatees (at least 115) died of a mysterious illness that also took the lives of some dolphins and pelicans. This occurred in Indian River Lagoon.

Manatees are very vulnerable to boat strikes because we graze in shallow water. There are just so many boats out there. Plus we sometimes get stuck in fishing nets due to our slow nature, and because the water we live in isn’t always crystal clear.

Phew! Next time I promise not to be so morbid and I will cover more interesting aspects of manatee biology and behavior.

The Seahorse Trade

By , January 8, 2014 11:05 am
pygmy seahorse

Pygmy Seahorses: picture by Steve Childs, Wikimedia Commons

Who hasn’t been beguiled by a seahorse exhibit at the local public aquarium, or even the ones at your local fish store. It is mesmerizing to watch their eyes darting independently here and there on the sides of their head, and it is amazing to watch the slow, deliberating way they stalk their prey before instantly sucking it in. Their body shape is so unlike any other in the animal kingdom, and their bumpy bony armor is just as strange. Strangest of all is that the males get pregnant and give birth! Yet this love for seahorses is costing 20 million seahorses their lives every year. Their main capture is for use in Traditional Chinese Medicine, but they are also sold as souvenirs. Other seahorses are captured alive for the aquarium trade.

I have only seen one type of seahorse in the wild, and it was the pygmy seahorse. Pygmy seahorses are only 0.79 inches (2 centimeters) high, and they are perfectly camouflaged for the red gorgonian that they live in. Red bumps cover their white body in the same pattern of the gorgonian that is their home. What impressed me most was how well they hold on to the branch of the gorgonian with their tiny prehensile tails. They are risking their lives each time they let go of a branch to move to another. The current in which they live was so strong that I had to kick furiously to stay in one place to see them through my dive guide’s magnifying glass. This strong current brings them a constant supply of food, but one false move and there goes your lifelong mate and the only home you have ever known!

Here are some links to help seahorses:
Buy captive born and raised seahorses from Ocean Rider
One of the leading seahorse conservation programs Project Seahorse
You can help! Citizen science: iSeahorse Explore App

UPDATE: There are now estimates that up to 150 million seahorses are killed annually.

Book Review: Surf Sharks, the First Ride

By , October 30, 2013 11:14 am
Surf Sharks: The First Ride book

Surf Sharks by Chance and Shelley Wolf

Surf Sharks: The First Ride is written by Shelley Wolf and illustrated by Chance Wolf.

Surf Sharks: The First Ride is a charming grade-school book about 3 boys who are surfers. They end up befriending 3 sharks right before a surfing contest. They all meet because one of the sharks becomes entangled in the net placed around a beach. This net is designed to keep out sharks. I like how this book brings to light how shark nets are can be detrimental to sharks and other wildlife.

The boys rescue one of the sharks, and the sharks in turn rescue one of the boys. The boys’ surfboards get destroyed, and surprise, the sharks volunteer to be their surf boards. I won’t give away the ending, but it is satisfying and is what is expected.

In all, I like how this book paints sharks in a positive light, and throws in a few educational details, like what denticles on a shark are. I really like the colorful cartoon illustrations, as they complement the story.

In conclusion, I highly recommend this book for any grade school age kid, especially those who likes sharks.

Here’s the Amazon link to buy Surf Sharks: The First Ride

Guest Post: Interview with Brian Skerry

By , October 8, 2013 8:58 am
Brian Skerry National Geographic photographer width=

One of National Geographic photographer Brian Skerry's iconic images of a Southern Right Whale

The following is an excerpt from True to Me Too’s interview with National Geographic photojournalist, Brian Skerry. Brian discusses some of his iconic images in depth, as well as the changes he’s witnessed over the course of his career. The interview covers his desire to protect the oceans fragile ecosystems and provides examples of successful sustainable fish farms, the resilience of marine protected areas, and the urgent need to protect endangered species. Brian also provides a variety of career opportunities for people interested in working to protect our oceans.

True To Me Too is an educational based career website that highlights interesting people in unique fields who have turned their passion into a career. The site will also feature Dr. Barbosa from The Marine Mammal Center in California. Both interviews will provide readers with first hand accounts from people who are working towards building a better future for our oceans.

Brian Skerry: “I saw a lot of degradation, I saw far fewer fish in the places where I had seen many fish in the early days. I saw far fewer sharks, I saw dead habitats and ecosystems, corals that were dying, things that I didn’t think most people would know about. I felt a real sense of responsibility and a sense of urgency to begin telling these stories as well.”

To read more of the interview with Brian Skerry click here

Guest Post: Lloyd Figgins on Rowing the Atlantic Ocean

By , September 23, 2013 2:50 pm
Lloyd Figgins ocean rowing

Lloyd Figgins rowing across the Atlantic Ocean

Rowing the Atlantic Ocean – one man’s journey of a lifetime

Lloyd Figgins is an Adventurer with many years of expedition experience, and the lure of a new challenge is never far away for Lloyd. In December 2011, with his rowing partner, David Whiddon, he embarked on a two-man expedition to row 3,200 miles across the Atlantic Ocean. During their mission, Lloyd collected data about the marine life that he encountered.

Here, Lloyd shares with us some of his experiences of his time on the ocean, and his reflections on the vulnerability of marine wildlife, and our responsibility to protect it.


I wanted to undertake some research that would benefit scientific understanding of the marine environment. We had a couple of advantages on this front: We would be travelling away from the main shipping lanes, so we could record sightings of marine life that otherwise might not be captured and we were also travelling slower than most other vessels, so would have more time to identify species.

Our first visitor was a Kemp’s Ridley turtle. It’s worth noting that six of the seven species of marine turtle are classified as threatened with extinction and three species are considered critically endangered, the Hawksbill, Leatherback and our little Kemp’s Ridley. We were therefore delighted that in this particular area just off the Moroccan coast we saw lots of turtles including one huge adult leatherback.

The only species of jellyfish we encountered was the Portuguese man o’war. It was a striking creature, but they pack a nasty sting. We always made sure we had a good look for them before going overboard for a swim.

The other thing we kept a close eye out for were fins. Seeing those would definitely cause us to postpone any overboard activities!

About 500 miles off the Moroccan coast we were visited by a 3.5-metre (11.5 ft) short-fin Mako shark, who followed the boat for a while before deciding against having an ocean rower for dinner. It was only when I got back to the UK that I discovered that between 1980 and 2010 there had been 42 recorded attacks by Mako sharks on humans.

A few weeks later we spotted another shark following the boat and this we were able to positively identify as a Thresher shark. Both Thresher and Mako sharks are considered vulnerable to extinction, so being able to record these sightings was satisfying.

About a week into the row we were visited by our first pod of dolphins. They are the most remarkable creatures and they seemed as curious about us as we were about them. From every direction they appeared – Atlantic Spotted Dolphins! They were swimming at the speed of the boat and looking up at us from just a few feet below the surface.

Finally, we were lucky enough to spot exceptionally rare pygmy killer whales, which, despite their name, are in fact dolphins. Little is known about them, but it is thought that a number of factors have caused a 30% global decline in their numbers over three generations.

It was a privilege to have such close interactions with so many species and it’s encouraging to know that the data we collected with be distributed to the scientific community.

Lloyd can be reached at, twitter @lloydfiggins, Facebook

The Real Fish of Finding Nemo Part 2

By , September 11, 2013 4:13 pm
real fish of finding nemo

Chum, Bruce and Anchor from Finding Nemo

Dory is a Yellow Tail Blue Tang or Blue Hippo Tang or Pacific Blue Tang or Palette Surgeonfish

Mr. Ray is a Spotted Eagle Ray. His blue coloration is more likely to be black in the wild

Crush and Squirt are Green Sea Turtles. Did you know 6 out of 7 species of sea turtles are threatened with extinction? Read more about Sea Turtles here and meet Crush’s brother Crash!

Sheldon the Seahorse is a generic juvenile Seahorse

Tad is a juvenile Yellow Longnose Butterflyfish

Pearl is a Flapjack Octopus that usually lives in the deep sea (and not coral reefs)

Bruce is a Great White Shark. Did you know Bruce is endangered? Read more about Bruce here

Anchor is a Hammerhead Shark. No one knows exactly why their head is so distinctly shaped, but scientists hypothesize that it helps them navigate, find food, or makes it easier to swim around.

Chum is a Mako Shark. Mako Sharks are the fastest swimming sharks, reaching a speed of up to 46 mph (74 km/hr).

Nigel is an Australian Pelican.

School of fish that does charades for Dory are Moonfish. There are many species called “Moonfish” though.

Click here for The Real Fish of Finding Nemo Part 1 (The Tank Gang)

How Do Whales Avoid Sunburn?

By , September 2, 2013 11:24 am
Sperm whale with remoras

Enigma the Sperm Whale and his Remora friends: Photo by Bryant Austin

Ahh, I love basking in the sun! Up to six hours a day in between dives. Hello, I’m a sperm whale, and my name is Enigma. Scientists took a sample of my skin using a modified crossbow and arrowhead, and compared it to over a hundred other sperm, blue, and fin whales in the Gulf of California. Guess what? They found that the three types of whales had three different ways to deal with UV exposure at the surface of the ocean.

1. Fin whales have high levels of melanin, the same type of pigment that helps humans tan.

2. Blue whales tan (much like humans) in their summer feeding grounds.

3. Sperm whales have proteins that protect them at a cellular level. That is similar to humans, who produce antioxidants in response to free radicals (which can cause cell or DNA damage) produced while exposed to the sun.

So why is studying whales like me important?

1. Due to the ozone layer deteriorating, us whales are exposed to more UV light than in the past. This is causing more skin lesions and other skin problems in whales. These skin problems could potentially cause cancer too.

2. Since we spend so much time at the surface, scientists can also measure our exposure to UV light over time to measure the health of the oceans.

3. The research done on whales can help scientists better understand the aging process and cancer in humans.

Although humans have natural defenses against the sun’s damaging rays, don’t forget to use an eco-friendly and biodegradable sunscreen, especially if you enter the ocean!

10 Interesting Facts About Killer Whales, or Orcas

By , July 28, 2013 2:43 pm
Orca breaching

Killer Whale breaching photo by NOAA

With the new documentary out about captive Killer Whales (referred below as Orcas) called “Blackfish,” I thought I would list 10 interesting facts about Orcas:

1. Orcas are found in all the world’s oceans.

2. Orcas are apex predators and lack any natural predators.

3. Most males never leave their mothers.

4. Orcas have culture since their hunting techniques and vocalizations are passed down generations.

5. Orcas generate 3 types of sounds: clicks, whistles, and pulsed calls.

6. Each pod has its own dialect of calls (that only they use).

7. Orcas and pilot whales are the only non-human species in which females undergo menopause (around age 40 years) and live decades after.

8. There may be up to 4 generations of Orcas in a traveling group.

9. Orcas have the 2nd heaviest brain among marine mammals (sperm whales have the heaviest brain)

10. A female Orca gives birth to 1 calf every five years, and she averages 5 calves per lifetime.

Guest Post: 5 Most Dangerous Sea Creatures

By , July 24, 2013 4:00 pm
sea wasp

Box Jellyfish photo from Wikipedia

Author Bio: Alina Jones is a content writer. She is a parent of two kids.
Her interests are Films, Travel, Entertainment, Technology and Eco Living. She is a professional blogger from London and has written many articles on Entertainment, Finance and Health. She is now doing research on uk border agency contact.

Sailing on the deep seas is one of life’s pleasures. However, one needs to consider taking security measures as there are numerous dangers that lurk in the sea. The sea harbors some of the most dangerous animals on earth. The 5 most dangerous sea creatures are: the box jellyfish, the saltwater crocodile, the blue-ringed octopus, the great white shark and the stonefish.

The Box Jellyfish
-Is also known as the sea wasp.
-This creature is transparent so it is hard to see coming.
-It is deemed the most dangerous of all sea creatures.
-It uses its tentacles to sting venom into its prey.
-Can kill a higher number of people than sharks, crocodiles and the stone-fish combined. One species has killed 64 people since 1883.
-Its venom kills in 2 to 5 minutes.

The Saltwater Crocodile
-Is the largest of all the reptiles in the world.
-They are found in Northern Australia, Eastern India and South East Asia.
-They are opportunist s, which means that they feed on anything that presents itself. They kill their prey by biting, ripping them apart, and then swallowing them.
-They are very swift even on land.

The Blue-ringed Octopus
-Is very small and grows up to about 8 inches in length.
-Its venom works by causing paralysis and breathing difficulties. It can kill a human in about five minutes, and has enough venom to kill up to 30 people.
-There is no known anti- venom for this creature.
-It only bites when and if provoked. The bite may not be noticeable. Some people only realize that they have been bitten when they feel numbness in the area.
-It is mostly active at night. During the day, it burrows in sand.

The Great White Shark
-Is the largest predatory fish in the sea.
-It feeds on high energy prey such as marine mammals, including elephant seals. When they bite, they wait for the prey to bleed to death, bite them, and then swallow them.
-After they feed, they may live for up to 3 months without the need to feed again.
-They attack humans out of curiosity and humans may die from their injuries, not because the shark wants to feed on them.
-They are usually active during the day.

The Stonefish
-It grows up to about 12 inches long.
-It is deemed to be the most poisonous fish in the world.
-It is a master at camouflaging . This makes it very dangerous as you may not notice it until you touch it.
-It lives along the coast in shallow waters and often resembles a rock.
-Its venom is in its sharp dorsal fins. The dorsal fins are so sharp that they can penetrate a shoe.

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